Worldwide unique most advanced nitrification-denitrification system
DENISTAR - Overview
The mission of inspired-by-nature DENISTAR is to ensure long-term, economical, animal-safe and user-friendly solution of nitrates control in all aquarium hobby segments and aqua-culture. Inspired-by-nature means the DENISTAR technology is based entirely on natural bacterial processes affecting nitrogen decomposition cycle in seawater.
Oceanic nitrogen cycle can be briefly exemplified as follows:
Except general requirements listed in the article about nitrogen there are following conditions which - if reached - lead to perfection in denitrification:
Source of bacteria in the form of PERMANENT REPOSITORY
Stable reproduction conditions for bacteria in order to reach their required amount
Stable living conditions for bacteria in order to ensure successful and long-term nitrification and denitrification
1 – Source of Bacteria: ANN 9505 BioCat
ANN 9505 BioCat is worldwide patented polymeric carrier mixed biological catalyst containing Nitrosomonas, Nitrobacter, Nitrospira and Paracoccus bacteria in exactly defined ratio. It is supposed virtually all bacteria participate in oxidizing environment on ammonification (see above), Nitrosomonas and Nitrospira with Nitrobacter are responsible for nitrification and finally Paracoccus is responsible for denitrification.
The catalyst alone is as such useless for reefkeeping needs without subsequent securing of long-term reproduction and living conditions for bacteria.
ANN 9505 BioCat catalyst must be stored at 4 C (39 F) into tightly closed container before inserting into DENISTAR Inoculation Chamber. One charge of catalyst (125 g) should be changed every 3 months. For more information see operating instruction.
Both nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria can successfully propagate under the same conditions and the role of DENISTAR Inoculation Chamber is to secure them and subsequently let bacteria to colonize the tank. Key features of inoculation chamber:
Preventing the leakage of ANN 9505 BioCat pellets into the tank
Keeping the ANN 9505 BioCat pellets in constant float motion
Ensuring proper water flow rate throughout the chamber
Enabling passive, active or no aeration of chamber interior
Enabling dosing system connection for bacteria nutrition application
Nitrifying bacteria can both propagate and assimilate inside the chamber (i.e. the chamber partially works as a nitrification reactor). As regards to denitrifying bacteria they can only propagate inside the chamber.
The DENISTAR Inoculation Chamber is small and easy to operate unit. For more information see operating instruction.
3 – Securing Stable Living Conditions: The Environment
Despite the fact that both nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria can successfully propagate under the same conditions inside DENISTAR Inoculation Chamber, they have strongly different requirements for living conditions so that they can assimilate and “do their job” – which is nitrification and denitrification.
Newly formed bacteria are steadily released from ANN 9505 BioCat pellets into water, leaving inoculation chamber and setting forth to colonize the tank. The nitrifying bacteria will resides at oxidizing environment while the denitrifying ones at anoxic and hypoxic zones (the environment with very low or no presence of oxygen).
The live rocks are by far the best media for all bacteria as they offer all above mentioned zones – oxic, hypoxic and anoxic as well.
The live rocks can be substituted with highest-quality reef ceramics or granulated media (natural or synthetic, closed in suitable media reactor chamber) or by sand bed in worst case scenario.
4 – Securing Stable Living Conditions: Continuous Energy & Nutrients Supply
As regards to the living conditions, on the contrary to nitrifying bacteria the special attention has to be paid to denitrifying ones. Besides reducing environment the denitrification requires continuous high supply of readily utilizable chemical energy in the form of organic carbon compounds and continuous supply of essential mineral nutrients - see further in this article.
DENISTAR system uses CS NitraClean as a sole source of readily utilizable chemical energy and essential mineral nutrients – both are necessary for highest bacteria propagation rate and for smooth denitrification.