The primary instruments for the maintenance of the correct composition of the sea water are ADDITIVES - not a marine salt.
Naturally concentrated MARINE SALT and WATER EXCHANGE are the tools for a rapid lowering of unwanted matter concentration - mineral and organic nutrients, various indefinable pollutants and optionally surplus sodium chloride. Only reverse-osmosis water may be used for the seawater makeup.
Liquid preparations of highest purity are used for CONTROLLED REMOVAL of phosphates and, if needed, of ammonia.
Both NITRIFICATION and DENITRIFICATION proceed naturally biologically (bacterially) and both are boosted by controlled supply of nutrients and fast energy for unicellular organisms.
The role of SKIMMING for the removal of high-molecular protein wastes of biological processes is irreplaceable. Special attention has to be paid to pre-filtration of particulate impurities.
Both food and the preparations for prevention and treatment of diseases are made exclusively of fresh natural raw materials with no added synthetic dyes, stabilizers and preservatives.
In the amount from 5 to 10% of the volume monthly for a rapid lowering of unwanted matter concentration.
It is not possible to achieve and maintain the correct seawater composition in the tank only with water exchange with water made of boosted marine salt. Each reef tank is different - from the view point of seawater chemistry primarily with respect to the structure and size of animals" population and the organisms" life cycle phases. As a result, biological processes in each tank affect the composition of seawater differently.
When using boosted salt for seawater make-up the main drawback is that its composition is fixed and unchangeable. A high elements" concentration in such salts is not an advantage; on the contrary it is an irreversible disadvantage, depriving the tank operator of the power to influence the chemistry of the tank in a flexible and complete manner.
Replenishment of calcium, magnesium and (hydrogen)carbonates in order to maintain correct seawater composition and alkalinity level.
From the view point of reefkeeping the significance of the major chemical elements does not depend on their absolute concentration, but, primarily on the rate of their depletion and how they affect alkalinity, responsible for maintaining correct pH value. Concentration of elements with generally low depletion rate depends on the correct composition of marine salt and remains practically constant, while the concentration of the other elements has to be maintained by the application of appropriate additives.
Replenishment of minor and trace elements and dissolved organic matter (DOM) for a long-term sound development, naturally fast growth and proper coloration of all marine animals.
Professionally constructed tank, containing the correct concentration of major elements, but with a low or none content of minor or trace elements or DOM can be, with a bit of exaggeration, compared to a quality family house without furniture and other necessary facilities. It is not possible to achieve aesthetically perfect tank with vital, healthy and properly coloured animals without a continuous supply of minor and trace elements and dissolved organic matter (DOM).
While the ratio of dissolved nutrients on the total metabolism of living organisms in the natural oceanic environment is estimated in units of percents, it is possible to increase this rate in reef tank off the particulate organic food, whose application considerably affects the entire system and poses increased demand primarily on nitrification, denitrification and phosphates removal.
The coral-shop concept prefers - as far as possible - targeted and controllable removal of unwanted matter (using liquid removers of highest purity) against the use of sorbents. As such it eliminates all disadvantages of sorbents - non-linear course of absorption capacity, absorption of "wanted" chemicals (e.g. trace elements) and release of unwanted ions at the beginning of sorbent application. Liquid removers can also be applied in a controlled manner, exactly according to the actual situation in the tank.
The absolute majority of corals and also many other invertebrates are able to utilize inorganic and organic nutrients dissolved in seawater - see Replenishment of Nutrients. Nevertheless, a significant number of important organic nutrients can be given to the organisms in reef tank only in the form of fresh food, without the "dissolved" alternative.
Correct and complete care of seawater requires permanent control of its physical and chemical parameters. The newest part of the coral-shop product portfolio is directed towards the development and production of seawater test kits of professional laboratory quality.